CIC 448 Very often in the Gospels people address Jesus as “Lord”. This title testifies to the respect and trust of those who approach him for help and healing.1 At the prompting of the Holy Spirit, “Lord” expresses the recognition of the divine mystery of Jesus.2 In the encounter with the risen Jesus, this title becomes adoration: “My Lord and my God!” It thus takes on a connotation of love and affection that remains proper to the Christian tradition: “It is the Lord!”3
CIC 553 Jesus entrusted a specific authority to Peter: “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”4 The “power of the keys” designates authority to govern the house of God, which is the Church. Jesus, the Good Shepherd, confirmed this mandate after his Resurrection: “Feed my sheep.”5 The power to “bind and loose” connotes the authority to absolve sins, to pronounce doctrinal judgements, and to make disciplinary decisions in the Church. Jesus entrusted this authority to the Church through the ministry of the apostles6 and in particular through the ministry of Peter, the only one to whom he specifically entrusted the keys of the kingdom.
CIC 618 The cross is the unique sacrifice of Christ, the “one mediator between God and men”.7 But because in his incarnate divine person he has in some way united himself to every man, “the possibility of being made partners, in a way known to God, in the paschal mystery” is offered to all men.8 He calls his disciples to “take up [their] cross and follow [him]”,9 for “Christ also suffered for [us], leaving [us] an example so that [we] should follow in his steps.”10 In fact Jesus desires to associate with his redeeming sacrifice those who were to be its first beneficiaries.11 This is achieved supremely in the case of his mother, who was associated more intimately than any other person in the mystery of his redemptive suffering.12
Apart from the cross there is no other ladder by which we may get to heaven.13
CIC 645 By means of touch and the sharing of a meal, the risen Jesus establishes direct contact with his disciples. He invites them in this way to recognize that he is not a ghost and above all to verify that the risen body in which he appears to them is the same body that had been tortured and crucified, for it still bears the traces of his Passion.14 Yet at the same time this authentic, real body possesses the new properties of a glorious body: not limited by space and time but able to be present how and when he wills; for Christ’s humanity can no longer be confined to earth, and belongs henceforth only to the Father’s divine realm.15 For this reason too the risen Jesus enjoys the sovereign freedom of appearing as he wishes: in the guise of a gardener or in other forms familiar to his disciples, precisely to awaken their faith.16
CIC 659 “So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.”17 Christ’s body was glorified at the moment of his Resurrection, as proved by the new and supernatural properties it subsequently and permanently enjoys.18 But during the forty days when he eats and drinks familiarly with his disciples and teaches them about the kingdom, his glory remains veiled under the appearance of ordinary humanity.19 Jesus’ final apparition ends with the irreversible entry of his humanity into divine glory, symbolized by the cloud and by heaven, where he is seated from that time forward at God’s right hand.20 Only in a wholly exceptional and unique way would Jesus show himself to Paul “as to one untimely born”, in a last apparition that established him as an apostle.21
CIC 880 When Christ instituted the Twelve, “he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them.”22 Just as “by the Lord’s institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter’s successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another.”23
CIC 881 The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the “rock” of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock.24 “The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head.”25 This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church’s very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope.
CIC 1166 “By a tradition handed down from the apostles which took its origin from the very day of Christ’s Resurrection, the Church celebrates the Paschal mystery every seventh day, which day is appropriately called the Lord’s Day or Sunday.”26 The day of Christ’s Resurrection is both the first day of the week, the memorial of the first day of creation, and the “eighth day,” on which Christ after his “rest” on the great sabbath inaugurates the “day that the Lord has made,” the “day that knows no evening.”27 The Lord’s Supper is its center, for there the whole community of the faithful encounters the risen Lord who invites them to his banquet:28
The Lord’s day, the day of Resurrection, the day of Christians, is our day. It is called the Lord’s day because on it the Lord rose victorious to the Father. If pagans call it the “day of the sun,” we willingly agree, for today the light of the world is raised, today is revealed the sun of justice with healing in his rays.29
CIC 1429 St. Peter’s conversion after he had denied his master three times bears witness to this. Jesus’ look of infinite mercy drew tears of repentance from Peter and, after the Lord’s resurrection, a threefold affirmation of love for him.30 The second conversion also has a communitarian dimension, as is clear in the Lord’s call to a whole Church: “Repent!”31
St. Ambrose says of the two conversions that, in the Church, “there are water and tears: the water of Baptism and the tears of repentance.”32
CIC 1551 This priesthood is ministerial. “That office. .. which the Lord committed to the pastors of his people, is in the strict sense of the term a service.”33 It is entirely related to Christ and to men. It depends entirely on Christ and on his unique priesthood; it has been instituted for the good of men and the communion of the Church. The sacrament of Holy Orders communicates a “sacred power” which is none other than that of Christ. The exercise of this authority must therefore be measured against the model of Christ, who by love made himself the least and the servant of all.34 “The Lord said clearly that concern for his flock was proof of love for him.”35
1 Cf Mt 8:2; 14:30; 15:22; et al.
2 Cf. Lk 1:43; 2:11.
3 Jn 20:28,21:7.
4 Mt 16:19.
5 Jn 21:15-17; Cf. 10:11.
6 Cf. Mt 18:18.
7 1 Tim 2:5.
8 GS 22 # 5; cf. # 2.
9 Mt 16:24.
10 I Pt 2:21.
11 Cf Mk 10:39; Jn 21:18-19; Col 1:24.
12 Cf. Lk 2:35.
13 St. Rose of Lima: cf. P. Hansen, Vita mirabilis (Louvain, 1668).
14 Cf. Lk 24:30,39-40, 41-43; Jn 20:20, 27; 21:9,13-15.
15 Cf. Mt 28:9, 16-17; Lk 24:15, 36; Jn 20:14, 17, 19, 26; 21:4.
16 Cf. Mk 16:12; Jn 20:14-16; 21:4, 7.
17 Mk 16:19.
18 Cf Lk 24:31; Jn 20:19, 26.
19 Cf. Acts 1:3; 10:41; Mk 16:12; Lk 24:15; Jn 20:14-15; 21:4.
20 Cf. Acts 1:9; 2:33; 7:56; Lk 9:34-35; 24:51; Ex 13:22; Mk 16:19; Ps 110:1.
21 1 Cor 15:8; cf. 9:1; Gal 1:16.
22 LG 19; cf. Lk 6:13; Jn 21:15-17.
23 LG 22; cf. CIC, can. 330.
24 Cf. Mt 16:18-19; Jn 21:15-17.
25 LG 22 # 2.
26 SC 106.
27 Byzantine liturgy.
28 Cf. Jn 21:12; Lk 24:30.
29 St. Jerome, Pasch.: CCL 78, 550.
30 Cf. Lk 22:61; Jn 21:15-17.
31 Rev 2:5, 16.
32 St. Ambrose, ep. 41, 12: PL 16, 1116.
33 LG 24.
34 Cf. Mk 10:43-45; 1 Pet 5:3.
35 St. John Chrysostom, De sac. 2, 4:PG 48, 636; cf. Jn 21:15-17.